The task of teachers such as controlling, regulating or disciplining students is teacher action is no longer appropriate. Adults iniaktivitas most important teacher is managing, organizing, and rnengkoordinasikan effort at au activity learners towards learning goals. Mernanajemeni class is a must-have skills of teachers in rnernutuskan, rnemahami, diagnose, and repair rnenuju kemarnpuan act of class on aspects of classroom management. The aspects that need diperhatikap in classroom management is the nature of the class, the driving force class, classroom situation, act selectively. and creative (Lois V. Johnson and Mary A. Bany, 1970).
The activities to be implemented in the classroom management aspects of classroom management, as set out in Directive Classroom Management in Elementary School are the following:
a. Check for the presence of students,
b. Collecting student work, examine and assess the results of such work,
c. The distribution of materials and equipment,
d. Mengurnpulkan inforrnasi did students, record maintenance data arsipl
e. Delivering the subject matter
f. Assign tasks / PR.
Meanwhile, the things that need to be considered teachers, especially new teachers in the first meeting with the students in the class are:
a. When meeting with the students, teachers should:
1) be calm and confident,
2) showed no anxiety, sour, or unsympathetic attitude.
3) provide greetings and introduce myself,
4) provide field format on personal data of students or teacher asks the students to write a brief history of his life.
b. Teachers assign tasks to students with orderly and smoothly:
c. Set the temp at the students sitting in an orderly and organized.!
d. Specifies procedures for speech and question and answer.
e. Make a sketch class (temp at student lounge).
f. Acting discipline both to students and to ourselves (PUOD Director and Director of Basic Education, 1996: 13).
Basic concepts that need to be observed in classroom management is an individual placement, ke1ompok, school, and environmental factors that influence it. In addition to the class nature of the role and motives of individuals in the group, the group properties, adjustments that occur in collective behavior, and the view of the teacher in teaching. Classroom management, besides giving importance to creating and maintaining an optimal classroom conditions, classroom management functions:
1) Purchase and equip facilities for all kinds of tasks such as: assisting the group in the division of tasks, helping the formation of the group, helping cooperation in finding organizational objectives, mernbantu sarna individual to work with a group or class, rnembantu work procedures, rnerubah classroom conditions,
2) Maintain order ¬ assignment task can run smoothly.
Figure 5: Explaining and helped establish the group
Functions as deemed necessary manajernen conducted exclusively by the school principal as set out in Directive Primary School Management in the following. a. Plan
Planning can be seen as a process of determining and planning programs and activities to be conducted in the future in an integrated and systematic way by the foundation, the basic principles and data at au-related information as well as using other resources (eg funds, facilities, procedures, methods and techniques) in order to achieve predetermined goals. Thus the product planning is a plan or program oriented to the future. The program should be more specific and structured operational. The plan should have the following properties:
1) The plan must clearly
Clarity must be seen in the goals and objectives at au targets to be achieved, the type and form of actions or activities to be implemented, who the officers, procedures, methods and implementation techniques, materials and equipment needed, the time and place of execution of activities.
2) The plan must be realistic
This implies that
a) Formulation of objectives, targets at au targets should contain expectations that allow can be achieved, both concerning the quantitative aspects and qualitative aspects. For that these expectations should be prepared according to the conditions and capabilities of the existing resources.
b) The type and the activities should be relevant to the goals and targets or goals that should be achieved.
c) The procedures, methods and implementation techniques should be relevant to the goals and targets or goals to be achieved and should be allowed activities that have been able to be implemented effectively and efficiently.
d) human resources will conduct these activities should be have the skills and motivation and other personal aspects that warrant or allow implementation of tasks and activities which it is responsible.
e) The intended use of facilities, infrastructure, and funding should be in accordance with the goals, targets or objectives to be achieved as well as possible all activities effectively and efficiently.
f) Schedule of events pe1aksanaannya hams permitting activities can be carried out effectively and efficiently and in accordance with the planned deadline.
3) The plan should be integrated
a) Plan elements should be showing both human and non-human as components that depend sarna one another, interact and move together in a synchronized manner towards the achievement of goals and targets that have been set previously.
b) The plan must have a regular serial order and prepared based on priorities.
Organizing is a process that involves the formulation and details of the work and tasks and activities based on formal organizational structure to people who have the willingness and ability to implement, as a requirement for the creation of optimal harmonisdan cooperation towards the achievement of objectives effectively and efficiently.
Organizing includes steps such as:
1) Identify the goals and objectives that have been set previously.
2) Assess the planned re-work and elaborate a number of tasks and translate it into a number of activities.
3) Determine personnel who have the ability and capability to carry out tasks and activities.
4) Provide clear information to teachers about the tasks and activities that need implementation, the time and place, as well as working relationships with teachers or other relevant parties.
5) Promote the infrastructure and funding required in the execution of the tasks and the activities.
This function involves efforts to provide the principal influences that can lead to teachers' moved to carry out tasks and activities together in order educational goals effectively and efficiently. This function perIu performed by a principal, because:
l) The fact that someone is going to do any work, task or activity if he is compelled to mcmenuhi something needs.
2) After planning "and peng0rgaisasian di1akukan should ditindaklanjutkan with task execution.
This function perIu done throughout the process of implementation of the work with respect to the range and level of need one. In order to perform this function there are several motivation techniques that can be used by the school principal, among others:
a) Giving praise and recognition,
b) Giving the confidence to carry out a job, togas or activities,
c) Providing opportunities or opportunities to perform actions that are creative, innovative
d) Providing incentives or rewards,
e) creating a harmonious working climate and fun,
f) Provide a good example,
g) Provide guidance or advice,
h) Provide a reprimand or sanctions,
i) Provide equipment and materials in accordance with the duties and activities as well as in accordance with the conditions of the school,
j) To provide decent service for the purposes of promotion or promotion, etc.
k) Provides pekerj aan or activities to the teacher as feedback,
l) To provide an opportunity to enhance the knowledge and skills of teachers.
d. Provide direction
This function involves the principal effort to provide information, instruction, and guidance to the teacher who leads in order to avoid irregularities, difficulty or failure in carrying out the task. This function is valid throughout the process of implementation of the program of activities. The implementation of this function can be the following activities:
1) Provide an explanation or instructions about the tasks and activities that must be implemented by teachers.
2) Provide an explanation or outline instructions on how ¬ how to perform tasks or activities that must be implemented by each teacher.
3) Provide a clear picture of the ways to avoid the work of teachers of irregularities, difficulty or failure.
4) Generating and fostering a sense of responsibility awab j. moral self every teacher who led the success of the work, tasks and activities that need implementation.
5) Giving attention, warning and guidance at certain moments, especially when the teacher is experiencing difficulties or problems in the implementation of their duties.
This function involves efforts to align the principal motion langk ~ h and maintain consistent principles (consistency) on any and all teachers in carrying out all the tasks and activities in order to achieve the goals and objectives that have been planned. This is done through building principals sarna work among teachers and between teachers and external agencies involved. In addition, the alignment and compliance with the principles as far as possible between management functions to one another entirely oriented towards the achievement of goals and objectives' predetermined. Thus, in performing this function of a school principal could use at least three approaches, namely:
1) Control the preventive
2) Direct Control
3) Control the improvements are
a. Control of the principal implemented prevention by focusing on businesses:
(2) The organization of the right, g.
(3) Provision of proper encouragement,
(4) Provision of clear direction and focus,
(5) Creating a work climate is cool,
(6) Coordinate appropriate and harmonious.
b) Control can directly put emphasis on the principal efforts to:
(1) Conduct a careful and planned observations systematically at each stage in the process of implementation of the program,
(2) Mengsupervisi the program or activity conducted by the teacher,
(3) Provide immediate assistance or guidance to teachers / personnel who need it,
(4) Developing a sustainable teacher discipline.
c) Control of the repairs are carried out based on the evaluation and analysis. Thus the improvement is made after something a task or activity is completed.
The function of the principal innovations concerning efforts to create conditions that allow teachers to self-perform actions or efforts that are creative innovative. Thus, principals and teachers need to look at au invent new ways of working or new things that better suit your needs. At least they are expected to be willing and able to modify things at au new ways are better at au more effectively and efficiently. These conditions need to be created in order to reform school education the school can appear dad. Therefore, this will foster creative attitude and the school. In performing this function the principal needs to pay attention to ¬ the following:
1) It must be realized that something new is not necessarily better than the old one,
2) If you can find or create something new at au way, he does not need to look down the long,
3) When it comes to things that are very basic such as the national curriculum, teaching and learning approach is new, and so on, then efforts should be consulted to the appropriate authorities within the Ministry of Education and Culture (DG PUOD and Director of Basic Education, 1996:1 @) -18). Pt
Referring to the concepts and functions of management of the class, it can be argued that no other class management refers to three things: the setting of students, maintaining the smooth engagement and physico facility setting classroom management problems can be grouped into two categories: individual and group problem issues (M. Entang and T. Raka Joni, 1983:12). Classroom management actions taken by a teacher will be effective if he can identify the exact nature of the problem at hand.
The emergence of the individual problems are based on the basic assumption that '~ all the individual behavior is an attempt accomplishing certain goals that needs to be accepted by the group / community and for accomplishing self-esteem. When those needs are no longer met by way of a fair-way of the individual concerned will seek to meneapainya by way of-way of the other as to act in ways neither good nor asocial (Rudolf Dreikurs, 1968). Furthermore Rudolf Dreikurs, see also M. Entang and T. Joni Raka 1983: 13; Ornstein, 1990:75) states that the result of unmet needs 'i:?' it will happen some possible student actions such as:
a .. Behavior to the attention of others (attention getting behaviors). Geja1a which looked from their 1aku are students in the class clown or the slow-paced in doing so need to get some extra help.
b. Behavior to show strength (power seeking behaviors). The symptoms are always the students argue, loss of emotional control, angry, crying and also muneul passive action is always forgetting the important rules in the classroom.
c. Level of behavior aimed at hurting others (revenge seeking behaviors). Symptoms that arise from this behavior is the act of hurting others as mengatangatai, hitting, biting, and so on.
d. Inability Demonstration (passive behaviors). The symptoms are in the form of not receiving any to try to do anything, because they thought that whatever the failure that happened.
As the probe Dreikurs and Cassel suggests the attitude towards the actions of the learners are as follows: (1) if the teacher was annoyed because the child's behavior, perhaps the purpose is to get the attention of the child, (2) if teachers feel defeated at au threatened, perhaps the child goal is the pursuit of power, (3) if the teacher feels hurt, the child objectives may retaliate, and (4) if the teacher rnerasa not helped, for the purpose of child rnungkin rnenyatakan non rnarnpuan.
Of the four ways / measures taken resulted in the formation of four individual behavior patterns often seen in school age children, namely:
a. Active-constructive pattern of the pattern of extreme behavior, arnbisius to be a super star in its class, and power mernpunyai effort to help teachers with vitality and heartfelt.
b. Destrukstif active pattern is a pattern of behavior that is manifested in the form of making jokes, like angry, hostile and rebellious.
c. Passive-constructive pattern is a pattern that points to a slow form of behavior with the intention of always helped and expect attention.
d. Passive-destructive patterns are patterns of behavior that points sloth (shiftless nature) and stubborn.
The next problem is the problem. This issue is an issue that must be considered also in classroom management. Problem group will muneul caused by unfulfilled needs of the group. Group problems. Issues that may be the problem ¬ muneul in classroom management are:
a. Class less cohesive because of reasons of sex, race, socioeconomic levels, dansebagainya.
b. Deviation from norms of behavior that have been agreed in advance, for example deliberately talking loudly in the library reading room,
c. Class reacted negatively to one of its members, such as mocking members of the class in the art of teaching singing voice with sound discordant,
d. "Membombong" class members who actually violate the norms of the group, such as providing encouragement to the class clown,
e. Groups tend to be diverted his attention from the task yangtengah tilled,
f. Such low morale or protest to the teacher because it considers a given task less fair,
g. Classes are less able to adjust to new circumstances such as disruption schedules, classroom teachers had to be replaced temporarily by other teachers, and so on (Lois V. Johnson and Mary A. Bany in Entang M. and T. Taka Joni, 1983).
Lois V. Further Johnson and Mary A. Barry suggested traits in the classroom as well as variables, namely:
a. Unity group
Unity group plays an important role in influencing members behave. Unity related to communication, change attitudes and opinions, standards groups, and the pressure on the split kelornpok at au non unit. The use of strong dominance can increase unity. But the rules by giving teachers can menirnbulkan unrest. Unity can be developed to help students to realize their relationship another as a means pernersatu sarna.
b. Interaction and communication
Tr adi interaction in communication, if some person / member has a certain opinion, and there was communication within the group and forwarded to discuss the opinion that the interaction with the d-ith senng emotions that strengthen the interaction. However, each group will seek to maintain their group interactions. This needs to be assisted by the teacher so that learning tasks can take place in Waj ar. Teachers need to know the needs of their students to communicate and give him the freedom to speak. Komunikasiverbal or non-verbal, if not resolved to make the situation damaged. To help them, teachers know their background.
c. Group structure
Informal structure of the group can influence the formal structure. Some individuals may be an informal structure, if necessarily. Placed in the high hat can destroy intimacy groups. Where the members of the group have tried to be very attractive. Positions above can be made if necessary changing.
d. Objectives of the group
If the goals are determined jointly by the student in relation to the purpose of education, the group members will work more productively to accomplish tasks. In other words, students will work with ~ well if it is related to their goals.
Punishments for Slswa created with the offender, may reduce the violation, but some kids still will not be able to learn well. Good way. are teachers must diagnose the needs and difficulties before helping them. The measures used to control the grade of the worst to best are:
1) Penalties or threats
2) Change of situation or strategy
3) Dominance or influence
4) Cooperative or participation
f. Climate group
Climate group hasi1.dari aspects are interconnected in groups or products all the power in the group. Climate is determined by the degree of familiarity of the group as a result of the aspects mentioned above. Strong familiarity will control the behavior of its members. Climate groups are essential in making amendments in the group. In addition to individual and group problem issues, another thing closely related to classroom management is the organization of the school.
School organization determine student placement, utilization of skills and talents of teachers and physico management organization, procedures, goals, and physical planned together to determine a student's behavior. School organizations deemed decisive influence on the direction of student behavior. However, most students are unaware of the influence of this organization against him. Teachers and students affected by the school organization as a whole, including the way of grouping, curriculum, physical plans, rules, values attitudes and actions. This assumption is reasonable because the social organization as a sub-system and the broader social system including the national school system. Norms evolve as a result of a process of interaction and adaptation to the pressures. This is the norm in terms of covering the values, ideas, and feelings. Norma refers to the tendency to respond to situations, behavioral or information-. Norma became a common function that binds members, parents or students in one school as a system. Work structure and inter-relations personnel, school staff also associated with intangible norms rules and policies. Nortpa norms helped integrate the school principal with subordinates. Norma sparked forms of behavior appropriate for personnel, including the behavior of the students. Policies and school rules give reflection to the attitudes, values, organization, goals, and student behavior in the classroom. Regulation is, the application will kebij. Writing rules do not result in different interpretations, it is different with the unwritten rules. Unwritten rules that will make interpretations vary from one school to another school or the teacher with other teachers. This situation is one aspect of school organization is less effective in supporting the creation of an atmosphere of learning.